Chapter 1: Early intervention

Contents

  1. Problems in diagnosis and therapy of vision of multi-handicapped children with visual impairment
    Jolanta Bialoskórska, Alicja Krawczyk, Małgorzata Walkiewicz, Poland
  2. A proposal for visive-sensorial rehabilitation in creative laboratories
    Paola Caldironi, Elisabetta Falcetti, Nicoletta Stringhetta, Italy
  3. Young blind children early development and early intervention
    Leo Delaet, Belgium
  4. The effect of "early intervention" on the cognitive development of visually impaired children
    Z. Hale Ergenc, Turkey
  5. Quality criteria of a model early intervention center: Fondazione Robert Hollman
    Erika Goergen, Italy
  6. The Programme "Guidance" as an endeavour to synthesise trends in early intervention in the 1990s
    Terezie Hradilkova and Jana Vachulova, Czech Republic
  7. Dimitar Vlahov Early Intervention Project 1
    Elena Hristova, Anita Cekanovska, Sonja Fortumanova, Republic of Macedonia
    Dimitar Vlahov Early Intervention Project 2
    Marion Weisz, the Netherlands
  8. Being together, interaction and dialogues in interactions between blind infants and their parents
    Anette Ingsholt, Denmark
  9. Lilly&Gogo program extended. Music Light Toy
    Gerti Jaritz, Austria
  10. Standardisation of Leonhardt Development Scale for blind children from 0-2 years old
    Mercé Leonhardt and Maria Forns, Spain
  11. The main causes of visual deficiency of the children and youngsters from south western Rumania
    Moise Codruta Marinela, Romania
  12. Influence of imprinting on mental development of children of early ages with a visual impairment
    Lilja Plastunova, Russia
  13. Early intervention for children with visual impairment in Rumania
    Vasile Preda, Romania
  14. Teddy bear club: Mobility club for under school aged children with low vision, group rehabilitation
    Taina Reunanen, Riita Aura-Korpi, Riita Samsten, Finland
  15. Early intervention at home: objectives and methods tailored for multiple handicapped visually impaired children
    Angela Rischer, Germany
  16. Luminia Project - a chance for the multi-handicapped blind children
    Alina Rus and Cristina Alexandru, Romania
  17. The role of early intervention in the light of experiences of the therapists from Lublin
    Ewa Sękowska and Beata Furmańczuk-Moś, Poland
  18. LAKU-programme, a Tool for Multi-professional Teamwork
    Eija Selmgren and Paivi Nurmi, Finland
  19. In the beginning there was trauma; what therapy for the word to come?
    Marzena Slomska-Schmitt, France
  20. The acquisition of Daily Living Skills in Infants and Preschoolers Who are Blind
    Birgit Spohn, Michael Brambring, Germany
  21. Early Intervention for multiple handicapped, visually impaired children - Idealism and illusion or authentic support for child and family
    Marina Strothmann, Germany
  22. First Results of the European Project: Low vision in Europe
    Renate Walthes, Germany
  23. The model of co-operation with the blind child's family in the process of early intervention
    Anna Witarzewska, Poland

lecture
1.1

Problems in diagnosis and therapy of vision of multi-handicapped children with visual impairment

full text of lecture 1.1

Jolanta Bialoskórska, Alicja Krawczyk, Małgorzata Walkiewicz, Poland

Address:
Association of parents and friends of blind and partially sighted children
"Rainbow"
Kopinska str. 6/10
02-321 Warsaw, Poland
E-mail: rainbow@free.ngo.pl

The Early Intervention Programme for Visually Impaired Children started in 1992. All children undergo ophthalmic and neurological examination. Their functioning is evaluated by low vision therapist, physiotherapist and psychologist. According to their assessment the individual programme of vision therapy is performed. The aim of it is to improve and enhance even traces of vision. Methods of diagnosis and therapy are adapted to the individual child possibilities (visual, motor, intellectual). Specific difficulties and procedures during functional diagnosis and therapy are discussed. According to the genesis of the visual impairment and other disabilities concrete suggestions of methods are presented. In this paper we would like to present the experience of our team in this field.


poster
1.2

A proposal for visive-sensorial rehabilitation in creative laboratories

full text of poster 1.2

Paola Caldironi, Elisabetta Falcetti, Nicoletta Stringhetta, Italy

Address:
Robert Hollman Foundation - Centre of Padua
Via Sette Martiri 33,
35143 Padova, Italy
Fax: + 39 49-8710659
E-mail: Caldironi@intracom.it

The Robert Hollman Centre of Padua presents a low vision rehabilitation proposal through the experience of two creative sensorial laboratories. These laboratories have been planned so as to provide an ideal space within which these children could discover the joys of elaborating and producing items counting on their own personal skills. Such a space should therefore become an environment capable of promoting the personality and individual identity of every single child, but nevertheless within the basic framework of project common to all, and which should foster the necessity of having to interact with the other children.

Two separate work groups, with different projects and objectives according to the children's age and sensorial pathology, have been set up and activated. The first group is composed of four children of about six years of age. The objectives pursued in this group are the following:

On the other hand, the second group is composed of four children of about eight years of age. The following are the objectives pursued in this group.

Besides, we would also like to investigate in both groups upon the following:


lecture
1.3

Young blind children early development and early intervention. Presentation of clinical developmental data of social skills in partially sighted children (1-3 years)

full text of lecture 1.3

Leo Delaet, Belgium

Address:
Centrum Ganspoel
Ganspoel 2,
3040 Huldenberg, Belgium
Fax: +32 2 688 07 13
E-mail: Leo.Delaet@ganspoel.be

  1. Observations on play behaviour and interaction were made during home visits, with 6-8 months intervals. Video-material is available to illustrate our method of assessment as well as the children's development. Older theories (Fraiberg) and recent ideas and publications (Hobson, Preisler, Recchia) serve as a frame of reference. They help us to understand how and why children behave the way they do. The discussion is about methods for the evaluation of development in different areas and about making prognoses for the future, but also on early intervention that should go beyond suggestions for play and cognitive development and should include social and emotional development.
  2. A set of existing materials for the exploration and communication of feelings has been adapted to suit the needs of partially sighted children. The 'box of feelings' consists of pictures and stories, puppets and a playboard that can be used in many different ways to promote the awareness of own feelings and the understanding of other children's feelings. The box of feelings was originally developed at the university of Leuven (C.E.G.O.); the adaptation was done by the team of itinerant teachers at Ganspoel.

lecture
1.4

The effect of "early intervention" on the cognitive development of visually impaired children

full text of lecture 1.4

Z. Hale Ergenc, Turkey

Address:
Istanbul University
Edebiyat Fakültesi - Psikoloji Bolümü - Beyazit
34459 Istanbul, Turkey
Fax: +90 216 472 55 51
E-mail: haleergenc@hotmail.com

It was observed that Turkish visually impaired students were less developed than their sighted peers at the beginning of primary education. Besides this, in a previous research, it was found that this gap in cognitive development couldn't be overcome through primary education. They were one standard deviation behind their sighted peers.

In this research, the visually impaired beginners of primary education at the age of six who had "Early Intervention" (the experimental group) were compared with those who didn't have (the control group) in respect to sighted peers. All of the children were given Verbal Subtests of WISC-R to assess and evaluate the development of cognitive abilities, namely; memory, judgement, arithmetic abilities, language abilities, abstract thinking, attention.
The hypothesis was that the experimental group would score significantly higher than the control group and they would appear to be developed similar to their sighted peers.
The hypothesis was approved; the mean scores of subtests and IQ of experimental group were similar and even higher than the sighted peers and significantly higher than the control group. So this study is the evidence for the importance of "Early Intervention" on the development of Visually Impaired Children.


lecture and poster
1.5

Quality criteria of a model early intervention center: Fondazione Robert Hollman

full text of lecture and poster 1.5

Erika Goergen, Italy

Address:
Foundation Robert Hollman
Via O. Clerici 6, 28821 Cannero Riviera, Italy
Fax: +39 323 788 198
E-mail: hollman@verbania.alpcom.it


lecture
1.6

The Programme "Guidance" as an endeavour to synthesise trends in early intervention in the 1990s

full text of lecture 1.6

Terezie Hradilkova and Jana Vachulova, Czech Republic

Address:
Association for Early Intervention
Spolecnost pro Ranou Peci, Haštalska 27
11000 Prague 1, Czech Republic
Fax: +420 2 248 26 858
E-mail: ranapece@braillnet.cz

Early intervention for families with visually impaired children was prepared in the Czech Republic in the 1980s and was made professional during the 1990s. When choosing and creating a model that would best suit our socio-cultural conditions and requirements, we stepped into a surprisingly fast-developing and changing process. Therefore, we couldn't simply take over an established programme from our foreign and experienced colleagues. What we learnt from them was how and where to follow the new trends in psychology, education and social work, how to implement them within our conditions and how to harmonise them with our clients' needs. Besides findings and knowledge of the development of children with visual impairment and possible ways of support and correction, we had to respond to the new trends in early intervention, which our foreign forerunners and teachers were implementing in their own practice. They are characterised namely by the following phenomena:
Transition from an institution care to providing services in client's natural and motivating environment, - transition from handicap-focused programmes to programmes focusing on the power and merits of the family and community, - the whole family becomes the client and the receiver of early intervention, tendency away from expert approach towards partnership with the client.
We were trained and educated in narrowly specialised fields, but progressive expert environment has required teamwork and complex approach from us. For the last year of the millennium, we have prepared an early intervention model called "Guidance", which we would like to briefly introduce. It is based on three methodology approaches:

  1. Child's development support;
  2. Family support; and
  3. Society support.

Their interconnection is guaranteed by the principles which are an inseparable part of minimal standards that our Early Intervention Centres observe. We leave it up for discussion whether this is a suitable model for the next millennium, or rather for its first few years, as we do not believe that such a young and progressive field as early intervention can get along with one model for long.


lecture and poster
1.7a

Dimitar Vlahov Early Intervention Project. Presentation of the beginning of the early intervention in Macedonia

full text of lecture and poster 1.7a

Elena Hristova, Anita Cekanovska, Sonja Fortumanova, Republic of Macedonia

Address:
Institute "Dimitar Vlahov"
Ul. Georgi Dimitrov b.b., 91000, Skopje, Macedonia
Fax: +389 91 779 537

The Dimitar Vlahov Early Intervention Project (DVEIP) started on 1 September 1998.
It consists of three phases:

  1. Advanced training and study of the team that is most directly involved in the work
  2. Realisation of the project that lasts 22 months
  3. Evaluation of the results achieved during the two years' work

Four partners are included in the project, among others "Bartimeus"-Holland.
We would like to turn to some major problems, difficulties and obstacles and of course the experience that we gained in the process of solving and overcoming them.

  1. Organisational problems
  2. Everyday work with the children included in the project

How to improve the existing system of detection and registration of visually handicapped children?


poster
1.7b

Dimitar Vlahov Early Intervention Project

full text of poster 1.7b

Marion Weisz, the Netherlands

Address:
Bartimeus, P.O. Box 340
3940 Doorn, the Netherlands
Fax: + 31 343 526856
E-mail: m.weisz@bartimeus.nl

This poster will be supplementary to the paper presentation by Sonya Fortumanova from the Macedonian early intervention team.
The poster will give background information regarding the origins of the cooperation, the aims of the project, the methods that were used to get early intervention started in Macedonia, the form that was given to the project and
the difficulties and problems that were met and how they were overcome.
In the poster some more details will be given about the training of the early intervention team and about the way in which Dutch knowledge and experience were implemented by the Macedonian team in their own situation.
One of the questions that will be raised is how to get this type of special education and support for parents integrated in the existing structures for health care and education.
The aims of the presentation are to achieve an exchange of ideas between Eastern-European early interventionists and to initiate discussions about possible ways of co-operation between countries with different social and health systems.


lecture and poster
1.8

Being together, interaction and dialogues in interactions between blind infants and their parents

full text of lecture and poster 1.8

Anette Ingsholt, Denmark

Address:
Refsneaskolen, Nat. Inst. for blind and partially sighted children and youth
Kystvejen 112, DK-4400, Kalundborg, Denmark
Fax: +45 59 57 01 01
E-mail: anette.ingsholt@vip.cybercity.dk

A Ph.D. concerning patterns of interaction in the preverbal phase (finished summer 1999). The aim of the study was to compare patterns of interaction in respectively blind and sighted infant-parent dyads and to characterise differences, if any were found.
The project is based on ninety video-recordings of a birth cohort of 10 blind, prematurely born infants. The developmental age of the infants is 3 to 36 months.
The focus of the analysis was, among other things, directed at how the infants use their face, hands and voices as expressive means in interactions with parents. The aim was to describe and compare possible differences in attention of the infants toward parents and objects in their surroundings and in the infants' patterns of dialogue with their parents in the different groups. Also, the analysis sought to identify who took the initiative to start and end an interaction.
The qualitative contents of the infant-parent interactions show differences in the way the blind and the sighted infants use their face, hands and voice. Thus, the unavailability of vision as expressive means in interactions between infants and parents generates differences in interaction between the two groups of infants, the sighted and the blind.


poster
1.9

Lilly&Gogo program extended. Music Light Toy


Gerti Jaritz, Austria

Address:
Dreierschutzengasse 36
A 8020 Graz, Austria
Fax: +43 316 575524
E-mail: m1010@stsnet.at

New materials to stimulate the development of visually impaired children have been added to the Lilly & Gogo Program. Next to the dolls, photos books and drawings of Lilly and Gogo, lightbox materials are now available as well.

In cooperation with the Technical University Delft and Dutch collegues a Music-Light Toy has been developed. The Music-Light Toy will be presented at this conference.

No further text available


poster
1.10

Standardisation of Leonhardt Development Scale for blind children from 0-2 years old

full text of poster 1.10

Mercé Leonhardt and Maria Forns, Spain

Address:
Center Recursos ONCE Joan Amades
Carreta Esplugues 102-106,
08034 Barcelona, Spain
E-mail: MELG@once.es

The Leonhardt' Scale is a Developmental Scale made in Barcelona by M. Leonhardt (1992). It gives a flashlight to the needs of by blind Children within the frame of Early Intervention.

This Scale is designed to assess the developmental stage and the developmental progress of children who are visually impaired. The items are totally taken from a thorough behaviour observation of blind children from Catalonia (Spain). It has been translated into several languages, including Polish.

In the Poster we would like to show the final Standardisation of Leonhardt Scale. The Standardisation has been done with a population of blind children from the north, south, centre, east and west of Spain. The whole of Spain is in this way represented. We want to present the results of this study.


poster
1.11

The main causes of visual deficiency of the children and youngsters from south western Rumania. Possibilities of prophylaxia and functional rehabilitation


Moise Codruta Marinela, Romania

Address:
Centre of Early Diagnosis and Rehabilitation for Children
Zona I.I. Brad, B31, sc.A., ap. 3
Timisoara 1900, Romania
E-mail: amoise@banat.ro

The sight is an important factor of knowledge, education and development for a child.
This report presents statistical data concerning the main causes of the visual deficiency, at the children and youngsters, from a district situated in south-west of Romania.
In the professional team who takes care of the visually impaired children, the place of the ophthalmologist is very important in the diagnostic and treatment, but also in supervising the evolution of the child, in order to avoid deterioration of the diminished vision, giving the starting point of counseling and support of the information about the visual capacity.

The earlier problems are caught, the easier they are to treat. Early detection and treatment are keys to preventing. Because of this, the ophthalmologic service of the Early Diagnosis Center and Rehabilitation for Children "Cristian Radu Dunareanu" from Timisoara, is especially involved in the screening tests and early detection of the visual disorders.
We present our efforts in this particular problem area and,. also, the possibilities and the needs to improve the actions in the field of early diagnosis and rehabilitation of the visually impaired children.

No further text available


lecture
1.12

Influence of imprinting on mental development of children of early ages with a visual impairment

full text of lecture 1.12

Lilja Plastunova, Russia

Address:
Centre for rehabilitation of visually impaired children
Pilutova street 54/2, flat 12
198264 St. Petersburg, Russia
E-mail: VMK@ELTECH.RU

Imprinting is one of the major phenomena of mental development of infants. It is known that for mental development of the child of early age it is very important that it has contact with the mother at the first hours. The bio-social link between the mother and child helps the child to adapt to new conditions of life more quickly, the bond of affection to the mother is established.

The experience of operation with infants in The Centre for Habitation of Visually
Handicapped Children shows us another side of imprinting - the negative side.

It is a recognised fact of birth of children with low gestation's age - 28-30 weeks that these infants have threat to a serious visual pathology. Besides, the vital organs of these children require support. Therefore at the first hours they are moved from a maternity house to the resuscitation of separation of hospitals.
It is known, that the emotional memory is formed on the basis of a positive or negative reinforcement from various irritants. Negative emotions, originating at the child in reply to painful procedures and separation from the mother are embodied in emotional memory of the child, and in future there can be by a source of fears, uncertainties, brake character traits.


poster
1.13

Early intervention for children with visual impairment in Rumania


Vasile Preda, Romania

Address:
"Babes-Bolyai" University
1, M. Kogalniceanu, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Fax: +40 64 191906
E-mail: vpreda@hiphi.ubbcluj.ro

In 1998, through the cooperation of Theofaan International (The Netherlands), and the Department of Special Education, "Babes-Bolyai" University, Cluj-Napoca, the Early Intervention Project started in Romania. Theofaan International provides the logistic, financial and methodological support.

Outline of activities:

Corrective-compensatory and formative activities take place both within families that have visually impaired children aged 0-6/7, and at the three Centres for Early Intervention, of Cluj-Napoca, Timisoara and Arad. In each of these centres there are two early intervention workers, each of whom work with 10 children.

General objectives:

Assessment of the basic visual functions; encouraging the global --physical and psychological-- development of visually impaired children; making sure that the "maturity" stage necessary for integration in mainstream education is attained.

Specific objectives for blind children:

Knowledge of the body image; forming and developing mobility and orientation skills in narrow and large spaces; developing global and fine motricity; developing tactile-kinesthetic and auditive; forming and consolidating gestures and some practical skills essential for mobility, developing the necessary skills for learning to read and write in braille.

Specific objectives for children with low vision:

Knowledge of the body image; perfecting mobility and orientation skills; using foveal and residual peripheral sight to the maximum; training binocular sight; developing sensitivity to light, contrast, and chromatic sensitivity; developing visual perception, representations, attention and visual memory; forming and consolidating gestures; forming the necessary skills for learning to read and write normally or in braille.

No further text available


poster
1.14

Teddy bear club: Mobility club for under school aged children with low vision, group rehabilitation


Taina Reunanen, Riita Aura-Korpi, Riita Samsten, Finland

Address:
Finnish Federation of Visually Impaired
Tőyryntie 2 as 22, 26100 Rauma, Finland
Fax: +358 2 837 80 447
E-mail: taireu@utu.fi

In Finland most children with visual impairments are integrated in their home kindergartens and schools. Contacts with other children with visual impairments are few . In Teddy Bear -club members get equal support from each other which is important in the development of identity. Teddy Bear-club is a new way of activity in the field of mobility rehabilitation. This was the first time in Finland when rehabilitation was organised in a club for children with low vision. In this club mobility was integrated broadly to physical exercise and social education. Teddy bear-club met once a week for 1 1 hours 10 times in spring 1999. There were four children in the club aged 3-5 years.
The objectives for the Teddy bear members were:

Methods: Confidence, play, idle talk, songs, physical exercise, working in pairs (child-child), child-adult), working in a group, support from equals repetition. Illustrating examples in videos from objectives, methods, skills children learned and from their progress.

The instructors formed a multi-professional team; mobility instructor/special teacher, physical education instructor for special sports, rehabilitation instructor counsellor for children with visual impairment.

No further text available


lecture
1.15

Early intervention at home: objectives and methods tailored for multiple handicapped visually impaired children

full text of lecture 1.15

Angela Rischer, Germany

Address:
Blindeninstitutsstiftung Wűrzburg
Brieger str. 25, 90471 Nűrnberg, Germany
Fax: +49 911 8967469
E-mail: rischeran@aol.com

Visually impaired children that also suffer from cognitive and motor handicaps such as epilepsy, brain damages or genetic disorders need highly specialised treatment to help them cope with these conditions. Most treatments are designed for children without sight problems and these are not appropriate for the visually impaired. The early intervention program the Blindeninstitutsstiftung Wuerzburg offers to children from 0 - 7 years takes place at their homes in weekly intervals and aims to improve the child's visual capabilities as well as motor, cognitive, emotional and social development. The intervention has to be tailored individually to suit the needs of each child. It contains different stages of intervention, i. e. an initial review of the child, identification of handicaps; working with parents/care-givers; adjustment to the child's progress.
The presentation describes our concept of early intervention to meet these demands. A video recording demonstrates the inherent difficulties in the therapeutic interaction and shows techniques to overcome these hurdles


poster
1.16

Luminia Project - a chance for the multi-handicapped blind children

full text of poster 1.16

Alina Rus and Cristina Alexandru, Romania

Address:
Special Education Centre "Speranta"
Street Fagului 17, Timisoara 1900, Romania
Fax: +40 56 195005
E-mail: fas@mail.dnttm.ro

Aim

the project aims to improve and enlarge the services provided for the multi-handicapped blind children.

Target groups

The transdisciplinary team

consists of psychologist, speech therapist, occupational therapist, physiotherapist, psycho-pedagogue and neuro-psychiatrist.

Objectives:

To increase the services offered to multi-handicapped blind children to include a centre-based day programme (2 days a week) in addition to home visit.

To gradually increase the number of multi-handicapped blind children with whom we work through child identification and parent consulting efforts and the day programme at the Centre.

Activities:


lecture
1.17

The role of early intervention in the light of experiences of the therapists from Lublin

full text of lecture 1.17

Ewa Sękowska and Beata Furmańczuk-Moś, Poland

Address:
School for Children with visual impairment
Harnasie 21/89, 20-857 Lublin, Poland
Tel: +48 81 7410689

The report is based on 10 years' experience of the authors in the work with small blind and amblyopic children with additional disability. It presents contribution of the authors to founding the point of early intervention at the Boarding School in Lublin, detection of the needs of the Lublin region in this field in order to ensure concrete therapeutic aid both for children and their families. The authors describe the specialist equipment and facilities of two therapeutic rooms designed to improve vision, stimulation of the senses: of touch, hearing, smell, taste, vibration-acoustic, balance, proprioceptive.

They give examples of techniques, methods, programmes used in the rehabilitation process.
The paper also emphasises co-operation with the family home of the child as well as the importance of thorough knowledge of the family environment in order to obtain additional information helpful for devising individual therapeutic programme.

Basing on the results of the questionnaire compiled by the authors and directed to parents the authors present their analysis of the answers to questions concerning the role of early intervention such as, e.g. to what extent parents' expectations were met, if they understand better the child's needs, if effects of therapeutic actions are noticeable.

The answers lead to a lot of conclusions which are essential guidelines for the early intervention work with small children.
Long practice and theoretical knowledge of the authors have let them develop own vision of the Polish model of early assistance in the growth of small children with disabilities and share it with other specialists. At the same time they feel the need to discuss the problem: to what extent is it possible to transfer the Western model of early intervention to the Polish reality?


lecture
1.18

LAKU-programme, a Tool for Multi-professional Teamwork

full text of lecture 1.18

Eija Selmgren and Paivi Nurmi, Finland

Address:
Finnish Federation of the visually impaired
PL 319, 40101 Jyväskylä, Finland
Fax: +358 14 3343140
E-mail: nurmi@nkl.fi

LAKU is a criterion referenced assessment and curriculum program for children with visual impairment, translated and adapted into Finnish culture from the American program Oregon. Both these programs are based on the Portage program and have similar structures. The aim of this presentation is to describe how LA-KU - program has been used as a tool for multi-professional teamwork in the early intervention of children with visual impairment.

The multi-professional team, working with children with visual impairment is built up of various professionals in different times. The co-operation and partnership between all these professionals and parents is extremely important for the development of the child and for the family. However, to be able to act as an equal team member parents who are not yet familiar about children's total development most often need some tools to learn those things. Professionals might have the same need concerning the developmental areas they are not specialised in. LA-KU-program provides a shared tool for the multi-professional team to plan together individual goals and activities for the child to support her/his overall development.

LA-KU program was developed during the three-year project (1994-97) in Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired. At the same time the program was used with seven families whose children have a severe visual loss. The experiences of this field test indicated that parents` assessment skills had improved during the project and they were encouraged to present their own views when individual education plans of children were made. The program was a shared, new thing between parents and professionals, which seemed to connect them. Based on these experiences a multi-professional training was developed for the new users of the program. During the training courses parents and different professionals, e.g. therapists, preschool teachers and aides, study together the characteristics of the visually impaired child's development and how to get the best use of the program in their everyday life situations.


poster
1.19

In the beginning there was trauma; what therapy for the word to come ?


Marzena Slomska-Schmitt, France

Address:
64 Boulevard du President Wilson
Bordeaux, France 33000
Fax: +31 5 56 96 00 52


Our presupposition is that the birth of a visually handicapped child causes a psychological trauma in its family, particularly for the mother. Psychologically, she finds herself profoundly destabilized and affected on the narcissistic level; she often cannot adjust her maternal tasks to this child, so very different from the imaginary child she had carried inside her. The mother's depression, along with her psychological break down, mobilizes defense mechanisms within her leading to emotional withdrawal from the child or else to an increase in her invested time for its care that masks her rejection. These mothers must be helped using psychologically and educationally adapted aids within the framework of an organization that takes into account the psychology, family dynamics, socioeconomic and cultural questions specific to that individual. This type of intervention should be established as early as possible, to avoid creating additional problems with respect to the child's handicap and to enable the family to go from unspeakable pain to manageable suffering.

Thesis and Articles:

Slomska-Schmitt M., Thesis, Paris 1977
Contribution to the clinical and projective study of the personality of born-blind children

Publications:

No further text available


lecture
1.20

The acquisition of Daily Living Skills in Infants and Preschoolers Who are Blind


Birgit Spohn, Michael Brambring, Germany

Address:
University of Bielefeld
PO Box 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld, Germany
Fax: +49 521 1068062
E-mail: birgit.spohn@uni-bielefeld.de

Up to now, little research has addressed the development of dally living skills in children who are blind. As a result, this field can still be broadly regarded as terra incognita (see, among others, Hecker, 1998). This paper presents findings from a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study.
Eighty children who were blind but mostly without additional impairments were examined in their family homes at 3- or 6- month intervals in the age range of 12-48 months with the Bielefeld Developmental Test for Blind Infants and Pre-schoolers (BEB-KV, Brambring, Dobslaw, Klee, Obermann & Tröster, 1987). Developmental data in the field of daily living skills are presented for the acquisition of eating and drinking, getting dressed and undressed, washing and toilet training. Findings reveal the importance of vision in the acquisition of these skills. The study also assessed further aspects of development (basic manual skills, neuromotor skills, cognition, language, socioemotional development, and orientation and mobility) and gathered biographical, medical, and sociodemographic data. Relations between the level of development in daily living skills and these other aspects are discussed. Finally, implications for the design of intervention measures are reported.

Full text not available in English


lecture
1.21

Early Intervention for multiple handicapped, visually impaired children - Idealism and illusion or authentic support for child and family

full text of lecture 1.21

Marina Strothmann, Germany

Address:
Blindeninstitutsstiftung Munchen
Winthirstr. 24, 80639, Munchen, Germany
Fax: +49 89 1678 12189

Systematic early intervention for multiply handicapped, visually impaired children at their own homes was begun a good twenty years ago with a wealth of ideas and concepts and considerable application of manpower and materials.
Today, after long years of practise, early intervention must measure its ideals against reality. For example, is mobile early intervention at the home the optimum framework for realistic and child-friendly early intervention? Are the child's possibilities and resources optimally recognised and promoted in individual intervention? Are early intervention practitioners well enough trained and sufficiently prepared for their task? Do parents get partnership support in bringing up their preschool-age, handicapped, visually impaired child? Are such ideas and aspirations of early intervention even up-to-date?
This talk will try to show the extent to which early intervention as an institution has fulfilled its ideals and realised its goals, and how these goals must be revised.
It will develop strategies and perspectives for how early intervention can persist and continue to profit parents and children in a new, and still changing, socio-political landscape against the background of the experience that has been gathered.


lecture and poster
1.22

First Results of the European Project: Low vision in Europe; Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Early Intervention with multiply-disabled, blind and visually impaired children

full text of lecture 1.22 (rar archive)

Renate Walthes, chairperson of the Project group "Low vision in Early Intervention in Europe", Germany

Address:
University of Dortmund FB 13
Emil Figgestr. 50, 44221 Dortmund, Germany
Fax: +49 231 755 4584
E-mail: Walthes@nvl1.fb13.uni-dortmund.de

Presentation of an investigation about the state of Low Vision Assessment and Intervention in approximately 30 European countries as well as representation of a basic curriculum for vision intervention in Europe.

Representation of contents and modules for establishing and implementing courses for staff development in the area of „Low Vision in Early Intervention" in Europe, were developed on the basis of the curriculum mentioned above.


poster
1.23

The model of co-operation with the blind child's family in the process of early intervention


Anna Witarzewska, Poland

Address:
Association of parents and friends of blind and partially sighted children "Rainbow"
Kopinska str. 6/10, 02-321 Warsaw, Poland
Fax: +48 22 822 0344
E-mail: rainbow@free.ngo.pl

The process of early intervention with active co-operation of blind children's parents consist the following stages:

  1. The parents call at the Centre seeking help for their child;
  2. The initial assessment of child's problems is carried out;
  3. The development of the child is assisted by:
  4. The periodical assessment and programming is carried out;
  5. The blind child is prepared for education in appropriate nursery school or centre.

The idea of treating parents as PARTNERS in the process of early intervention is the mainstay of our philosophy consisting in:

In my poster presentation I would like to show the main forms in which our team tries to put all these assumptions into practice.

No further text available.


Next chapter

Back to the: [ Table of contents | 5th European Conference Page | Home Page ]