Chapter 2: Multi-disabled visually impaired

Contents

  1. Description structure and operation of the Center "Communication"
    Paraskevi Bellou, K. Bolias, U. Simitzi, D. Vahatelas, Th. Galanaki, Greece
  2. Children with cerebral visual impairment, CVI, a specific challenge in the care of visually impaired children.
    Eliane Bonamie, Belgium
  3. Assessment of visual functioning in mentally disabled
    Ferda Bijker, the Netherlands
  4. Light sensitivity in visually impaired syndrome of Down
    Ferda Bijker and Paula Sterkenburg, the Netherlands
  5. The ways of deaf-blind communication - a wide range of methods used
    Maria Drzewiecka, Poland
  6. Computer Play for Children who are Severely Visually Impaired: Using an alternative keyboard with tactile overlays
    Jenny Hammarlund, Sweden
  7. Communication between a multi-handicapped visually impaired person and his caretakers/parents during mealtime - mealtime as a social event?!
    Monika Jakob, Germany
  8. The Use of Optically and Electronically Magnifying Seeing Aids with Multi-Handicapped Low-Visioned and Deaf-Blind Children and Youths
    Sabine Kampmann, Germany
  9. EFS: A new test system for assessment of vision and vision training of persons with severe multihandicap
    Hanns Kern, Germany
  10. A concept for supporting the development of multi-handicapped children and adults
    Bernd Klostermann, Germany
  11. Vision stimulation of children with visual and multiple impairments
    Anna Kobylanska, Poland
  12. Survey of multidisabled visually impaired children in special schools in Crete (Hellas)
    Dimitri Koutantros, Greece
  13. STRUKTUR: A communication software for people with Batten's disease
    Stig-Ake Larsson, Sweden
  14. Encouraging children with MDVI to become Active Learners through Play
    Mary Lee and Lindi Mac William, UK
  15. The how-to with visually deficient child and added deficiencies
    Isabel Tapia Martin, Spain
  16. The role of interaction in educating deaf-blind students and evaluating them through observation techniques
    Juan José Martinez González, Spain
  17. Haptic exploratory strategies in learners who are blind in combination with multiple disabilities
    Michael McLinden, UK
  18. The use of LVAs by children and young people with MDVI in England and Wales
    Michael McLinden, UK
  19. Facilitating the development of intentional communication in blind multihandicapped infants
    Monika Orkan-Lecka, Poland
  20. Development of the education of multi-handicapped students in Bulgaria
    Peter Petrov, Bulgaria
  21. Accompanying a family with a small blind and multi-handicapped child using the Dutch Video Home Training method
    Ewa Reczek and Katarzyna Kwiatkowska, Poland
  22. Integrated mathematics with Woodwork
    Mia Rundgren and Gunnar Stengarn, Sweden
  23. Batten's disease/Spielmeyer-Vogt. The Nordic Touch
    Solveig Sjöstedt, Finland
  24. Self-injuring behaviour of persons with a visual and intellectual disability
    Paula Sterkenburg and Ferda Bijker, the Netherlands
  25. The use and results of a stimulation program for young children who are visually and intellectually disabled
    Paula Sterkenburg and Ferda Bijker, the Netherlands
  26. Diagnosis of specific impairments in visual perception in congenitally brain damaged children
    Erik Vandenbussche, Belgium
  27. Implementation of a versatile auditory scanning AAC device for a severe physical and visual handicapped teenager
    Ingrid Vanderwaeren, Belgium
  28. Children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI), a specific challenge in the care for children with low vision
    Tine van den Wouwer, Belgium

poster
2.1

Description structure and operation of the Center "Communication"

full text of poster 2.1

Paraskevi Bellou, K. Bolias, U. Simitzi, D. Vahatelas, Th. Galanaki, Greece

Address:
"Communication" Day-care centre for Blind Disabled Persons
16777 Vouliagmenis Av. (Ex. USAF Base), 16777 Athens, Greece
Fax: +30 1 9632549
E-mail: yyp20@compulink.gr


lecture
2.2

Children with cerebral visual impairment, CVI, a specific challenge in the care of visually impaired children. Early guidance for babies and toddlers with C.V.I.

full text of lecture 2.2

Eliane Bonamie, Belgium

Address:
Institut Spermalie
Snaggaardstraat 9, 8000 Brugge, Belgium
Fax: +32 50 337 306
E-mail: info@mpi-spermalie.be

Within the group of visually impaired children and youngsters, those with cerebral visual impairment are increasingly differentiated. The service Early Home Care for young visually handicapped children (0 to 6 years) yearly assists some 20 children with C.V.I., either with or without an eye disorder. This amounts to about 18 % of our population. We note problems in the visual functions, eventually accompanied by a loss of the sharpness of sight, we note problems in the motor and mental development, in the behaviour and the making of contacts.

Based upon our own observations and insights with babies and toddlers with C.V.I., we want to formulate a common pedagogic phrasing and initiate a specific assistance program. Our contribution consists of

The whole scheme will be illustrated by video.


lecture
2.3

Assessment of visual functioning in mentally disabled

full text of lecture 2.3

Ferda Bijker, the Netherlands

Address:
Bartimeushage
PO Box 87, 3940 AB Doorn, the Netherlands
Fax: +31 343 513996
E-mail: F.Bijker@Bartimeus.nl

Bartiméus is a Dutch organisation providing education, care and services to visually impaired. Bartiméushage is the location where this is provided to people who are also mentally disabled. The Visual Advisory Centre of Bartiméushage is a department where the broad experience in working with this group of multiple handicapped is used for outreaching activities. Staff of the VAC is trained in assessment of the visual functioning in mentally disabled. Special developed testing material is used. Knowledge about the (causes of) the visual impairment, the personal care plan and information from caretakers of the client (or the client itself) is incorporated in a personal advice report, written by a psychologist.

In this lecture the need of assessment of visual functioning in mentally disabled will be emphasised. Causes of visual impairment in mentally disabled will be mentioned.
Explanation about methods used and the interpretation of the results will be given.
Testing material will be demonstrated. The influence of a visual impairment in daily life of the mentally disabled client can be discussed.


poster
2.4

Light sensitivity in visually impaired syndrome of Down

full text of poster 2.4

Ferda Bijker and Paula Sterkenburg, the Netherlands

Address:
Bartimeushage
PO Box 87, 3940 AB Doorn, the Netherlands
Fax: +31 343 513996
E-mail: F.Bijker@Bartimeus.nl

Bartiméus is a Dutch organisation providing education, care and services to visually impaired. Bartiméushage is the location where this is given to people who are also mentally disabled.
The Visual Advisory Centre of Bartiméushage is a department where the broad experience in working with multiple disabled is used for outreaching activities.

Staff of the VAC is trained in assessment of the visual functioning in mentally disabled. Knowledge about the visual impairment is incorporated in an advice report specialised on the client and his environment.

Assessment in many clients with syndrome of Down showed a great percentage of this group is visually impaired. The most common causes of the visual impairment are cataract and keratoconus.

Cataract and keratoconus can lead to a high lightsensitivity and this can cause many incomprehensible behaviour.

A study of ±50 visually impaired clients with syndrome of Down will be presented in a poster. Information will be given about the causes of the visual impairment, percentage of clients with increased lightsensitivity and (possible) changes in behaviour.
Advice in reference to lightsensitivity will be given.


lecture
2.5

The ways of deaf-blind communication - a wide range of methods used


Maria Drzewiecka, Poland

Address:
Educational centre for the blind children
ul. Krasinskiego 10, Bydgoszcz, 85-008 Poland
Fax: +48 521 322 7625

I would like to present a lecture on „The ways of the deaf-blind communication - a wide range of used methods". First, I will define the communication itself and necessary preparations that make it possible. Secondly, I will discuss the elements of successful process of communication. Then I will focus on the problems that deaf-blind people have in communication with their relatives and the outside world. I will also present methods of communication.
They will be shown in two groups: universal methods and special ones. The universal methods are letter-drawing on a hand, punctual alphabet on a hand and braille and print usage. Special methods are sign language (tactile perception of finger alphabet, geographic signs adaptation for sign alphabet) and braille (braille writing for one hand and for two hands).
Moreover, I will try to explain the process of pre-language communication and so-called total communication. In the closing part of my lecture I will say a few words about the problems of people who for various reasons became deaf-blind. I will focus on their contacts with others and useful technical devices which help to maintain communication.

Full text not available in English


poster
2.6

Computer Play for Children who are Severely Visually Impaired: Using an alternative keyboard with tactile overlays


Jenny Hammarlund, Sweden

Address:
Tomteboda Resource Centre
Box 1313, 17125 Solna, Sweden
Fax: +46 84700 707
E-mail: Jenny.Hammarlund@TRC.se

In the presentation I will give some tips and ideas about computer play based on my work with children who are severely visually impaired. It will show how simple exercises can be made using the Flexiboard, a so-called alternative keyboard.

Using an alternative keyboard makes it possible for children who are severely visually impaired to use the computer. If you put different overlays of tactile material on the board the child can examine the overlays by touch It is also possible to add various sound illustrations or speech recordings. The board registers pressure on a particular area and gives an auditory response This makes it possible for the child to obtain information via the sense of touch in their fingers in combination with audible impressions.

The role of the parents or educators is to try and create playful exercises which stimulate the child to be active. A modern computer is not only a visual tool but also offers many other possibilities. Play with the computer for children who are severely visually impaired must build on touching, listening, understanding, and of having fun.

No further text available.


lecture
2.7

Communication between a multi-handicapped visually impaired person and his caretakers/parents during mealtime - mealtime as a social event?!

full text of lecture 2.7

Monika Jakob, Germany

Address:
Blindeninstitutsstiftung Munchen
Winthirstr. 24, D-80639 Munchen, 80639 Germany
Fax: +49 89 167812119

The lecture will be about communication between multi-handicapped visually impaired persons and their caregivers/parents during feeding or mealtime situations. The importance of communication will be stressed and there will be some video clips to show that the often very difficult feeding or mealtime situation can become much more relaxed and rewarding, if we (the non-handicapped partners) change our main attitude from "eating" to "communicating".
There will be a short introduction of my understanding of the term communication - that it is something that needs two partners who both will affect the communication process. And there will also be some information about the processes the non-handicapped partners will have to go through to be able to realise this different attitude. The video clips will mainly show deaf-blind children or visually impaired children with an additional hearing impairment, but in my opinion the underlying principles will also be valid for multi-handicapped persons.
Possible questions for the discussion:


poster
2.8

The Use of Optically and Electronically Magnifying Seeing Aids with Multi-Handicapped Low-Visioned and Deaf-Blind Children and Youths


Sabine Kampmann, Germany

Address:
Blindeninstitutsstiftung Wűrzburg
Ohmstr. 7, 97076 Wűrzburg, Germany
Fax: +49 931 2092264

Each vision impairment is always an "individual" impairment. Vision-impaired patients with the same visual acuity experience their sight very differently, deal with their self-experience according to their personality and, depending on the quality of their guidance and stimulation, there is an empirically outstanding variety of options for the development of their personality.
Reasons for this can be:

  1. The time of the beginning of the vision impairment.
  2. The structure of the individual perceptive faculty.
  3. The influence of social surroundings.
  4. The quality of therapeutic support.

An important, actually essential help are magnifying seeing aids.
Often, the responsible people are still of the opinion that this group of children and youths does not require optical and/or electronic aids. In the Blindeninstitutstiftung, experience has shown that with the appropriate magnification, pictures, objects and persons are being recognized and writing and reading are possible again. With the choice and use of the appropriate seeing aid, for which the orthoptic is ultimately responsible, the personal and cognitive development of the child and youth is positively supported.
For the diagnostics and therapists, the knowledge of the variety of existing seeing aids is very important. Experience shows that the close cooperation of the professionals dealing with this patient group and their problems is essential and that it can only serve the development of the patients entrusted with us.

No further text available.


lecture
2.9

EFS: A new test system for assessment of vision and vision training of persons with severe multihandicap


Hanns Kern, Germany

Address:
Blindeninstitutsstiftung Wűrzburg,
Ohmstr. 7, 97076 Wűrzburg, Germany
Fax: 0049 931 2092264
E-mail: BISTHE@t-online.de

Children with multiple handicaps have individual, varying and complex visual functions. In order to help them to make progress in their visual activities we have developed specific test systems with a psychological approach tailored to their needs. EFS (Entwicklungs- und Förderdiagnostik des Sehens für mehrfachbehinderte Menschen) covers the multitude of visual activities at the different steps of development up to the developmental age of three years. For instance we are able to find out, whether children are able to visually scan only simple figures or complex patterns, or perhaps even highly complex figures in front of an even background. Test results predict visual skills of the children in their usual environment and are helpful in planning a more precise training program of specific visual activities.
The use of some of the new, specific test-materials of EFS will be demonstrated with slides and a short video sequence, which also will depict training based on the EFS test results.
Most important features of test results of 200 persons tested since 1994 will be reported.

Full text not available in English.


lecture
2.10

A concept for supporting the development of multi-handicapped children and adults


Bernd Klostermann, Germany

Address:
Blindeninstitutsstiftung Wűrzburg,
Ohmstr. 7, 97076 Wűrzburg, Germany
Fax: +49 931 2092264

The concept of care and support for multi-handicapped low-visioned and blind persons is based on the humanistic view of humankind, according to which our actions are geared towards creating a humane environment for these persons, so they can live with dignity and find support for their personal development, as well as a home.
As far as the development of personality is concerned, I would like to take up the basic tendency that people fulfill themselves in dealing with their environment. This self-active process takes place on all levels of personality and includes reciprocal somatic, mental and social aspects.
As a living organism, a human is always in action in order to ensure survival of their own structure. Development takes place whenever an individual cannot keep his stability with the means, structures and strategies at his disposal and he is forced to find new solutions.
The multi-handicapped persons in our institution show massive limitations in their basic endowments, therefore the two processes of the adjustment of the environment to the organism and the adjustment of the organism to the environment - the actual development of a person - can only be incomplete.
Supporting the development therefore means finding the next possible developmental step and support it on all levels of personality.

Full text not available in English.


lecture
2.11

Vision stimulation of children with visual and multiple impairments

full text of lecture 2.11

Anna Kobylanska, Poland

Address:
University of Gdansk
Krzywovstego 19, Gdansk 80-952, Poland
Fax: +48 58 557 21 12
E-mail: pedak@univ.gda.pl

The World Health Organisation introduced the project of International Classification of Impairments, Activities and Participation (ICIDH-2). This project expressed an aspiration to treat the disability as a whole social model.
The classification denotes to three levels of functioning:

  1. the impairments denote to the organism,
  2. the activities denote to the level of functioning of a person,
  3. the participation concerns the person's relation with the society.

Answering the postulate of timely intervention and aiming to help at each of the three levels of ICIDH-2 the counselling centre for children with visual and multiple impairments and their families has been organised in Gdańsk.

The centre will care for low vision children aged from 0 to 3, and children with multiple handicap to whom complex medical, pedagogical and psychological help will be offered.
The efficient help on all three levels of ICIDH-2 should make easier the realisation of the main purpose of our activity: to enable the whole participation and equality of disabled person in the social life. In my speech I will present the results of vision stimulation in five children with visual and multiple impairments.


poster
2.12

Survey of multidisabled visually impaired children in special schools in Crete (Hellas)

full text of poster 2.12

Dimitri Koutantros, Greece

Address:
University of Birmingham, School of education
Room G46, Research student
B15 2TT Great Britain
E-mail: D.Koutantos@bham.ac.uk

The purpose of this inquiry was to identify a number of children with VIMI within the public and private special schools of Crete, in order to change the current educational attitudes towards these children. The stimulus for this study came from one of my previous research, according to which there was no social provision for these children because there was no child with a visual impairment in the whole island! (Koutantos, 1998; 1999a). The identification of these children can help in a better educational provision, methods of teaching, teaching programmes, technology and materials (Porter & Pease, 1998a). However, it is not helpful to divided up a school population according to dry categories of impairments without an educational perspective (Koutantos, 2000a). That is why teachers' views about the current educational practice and theory can contribute to better educational intervention. For the purpose of the study, the head teachers and classroom teachers of 18 special educational placements filled in a questionnaire (v=59). The results reveal an important number of these children in these schools (n=58), or out of any educational placement (n = 18). This gave a total of 76 children and young people with MIVI, and at least 12 children with VI. Furthermore, the current educational provision concerns more traditional techniques rather than contemporary technological and educational approaches. Finally this study could be an example of an alternative and complementary option to the individual model of disability by emerging the importance of the class teacher's view of these children. It concerns both personal aspects (impairment), environmental factors (home, school, work, human resources, equipment resources), and their combination and interaction (attitudes).


poster
2.13

STRUKTUR: A communication software for people with Batten's disease

full text of poster 2.13

Stig-Ake Larsson, Sweden

Address:
Ekeskolan
Box 9024, S-700 09 Örebro, Sweden
Fax: +46 19-6762 200
E-mail: stig-ake@eke.specialskolorna.se

Battens disease belongs to progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood with both ophthalmologic and neurologic symptoms. The initial symptoms, normally appearing at the age 5-9, are gradual visual function loss, with reduced visual acuity, visual field constrictions, and eventually, total blindness. Other symptoms gradually developing are major language/speech difficulties, intellectual retardation, motor problems and epilepsy.

Pupils with Batten's disease generally have had very little access to IT and educational aids adapted for their special needs. The combination of visual impairment, motor dysfunction and loss of expressive speech, have been the barriers to find a suitable and successful way to deal with their communication difficulties and other needs.


lecture
2.14

Encouraging children with MDVI to become Active Learners through Play

full text of lecture 2.14

Mary Lee and Lindi Mac William, UK

Address:
Royal Blind School
Canaan Lodge, 43 Canaan Lane
Edinburgh EH10 4SG Scotland, UK
Fax: +44 131 447 9266
E-mail: canaan@globalnet.co.uk

Several characteristics mark the play of children who are MDVI - their greater dependence on adults and their particular difficulties in reaching out and making sense of their environment. Without sensitive intervention, these conditions may limit their opportunities for constructive learning. Close observation of MDVI children's play has shown the need for some very different approaches.

In our paper, we look at how we can encourage an interest in objects by following the principles of early child development - in particular, mother/infant interaction. Through this approach, the children are encouraged to gradually move away from an exclusive focus on the adult, to include objects in the interaction and subsequently to find intrinsic interest in objects for their own sake.


poster
2.15

The how-to with visually deficient child and added deficiencies


Isabel Tapia Martin, Spain

Address:
Centro de recursos educativos para ninos deficientes visuales "JOAN AMADES"
Ctra. De Esplugas No 102-106, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Fax: +34 93 2805193
E-mail: itapia@xtec.es

We see the child from the point of view of a person in an entire way.
This person has some capacities, communication needs, abilities to do and plus of the visual deficit, maybe this person has the motoring, cognitive, auditive or emotional areas with added deficiencies.

Looking at his needs, it's difficult to estimate an exact response of the child, for example a visual response, ignoring his attention level, the grade of motivation that need, the way of communicate, handling capacity or movements that makes.

Reading from the qualitative way more than the quantitative way.

With the how-to guides, select those resources that motivates the needs of look, touch, feel or listen.

If you want to offer the necessary response about the needs of the child, it's necessarily to prepare some basic information:

It's important to work in coordination inside the work team and arrange a space of reflection to improve the quality of the intervention.

No further text available.


lecture
2.16

The role of interaction in educating deaf-blind students and evaluating them through observation techniques

full text of lecture 2.16

Juan José Martinez González, Spain

Address:
O.N.C.E.
Calle Prado 24, Madrid 28014, Spain
Fax: +34 91 429 31 18

Although certain cognitive and motivational tendencies exist which are common to all human beings, today's scientific literature underlines that the development and refinement of these tendencies depends on the settings and socialising factors present in a child's psychological makeup.

One of these settings is, of course, the educational environment. The fundamental mediating role of teachers in educating deaf-blind students must be underlined. They maintain clearly established and physically close teaching relationships with such students. Thus, teachers help deaf-blind students relate to objects and their surroundings efficiently.

The ways in which teachers set out teaching objectives, organise spaces and activities, present information, propose tasks, respond to students' demands and evaluate their learning all create learning environments that affect students' motivation and the way they gain knowledge (Ames 1992, Alonso Tapia 1992, Kuhl 1994, Pintrich 1996). For this reason, we have proposed to work out a useful tool aimed at identifying instruction codes (interaction observation code) implicated in the teaching-learning process. These same codes should also help to provide practical guidelines geared towards improving teaching practices in the classroom.


poster
2.17

Haptic exploratory strategies in learners who are blind in combination with multiple disabilities


Michael McLinden, UK

Address:
University of Birmingham, School of Education, Edgbaston
Birmingham, UK
Fax: +44 121 414 4865
E-mail: M.T.McLinden@bham.ac.uk

Children who are blind in combination with multiple disabilities will be reliant on haptic information as a major source of sensory input.
However, inefficient haptic exploration strategies may yield imprecise information about the world, which can have an important bearing on their knowledge and understanding of the world. This paper reports on the preliminary findings of an ongoing research project investigating the haptic exploratory strategies of learners within this population. Through analysis of individual case studies, the study considers how each learner uses his or her hands in combination with the mouth, to assess different object properties, and in particular seeks to:

The paper will incorporate video material of the case studies and will provide opportunities for focused discussion.

No further text available.


lecture
2.18

The use of LVAs by children and young people with MDVI in England and Wales

full text of lecture 2.18 [RAR]

Michael McLinden, UK

Address:
University of Birmingham, School of Education, Edgbaston
Birmingham, UK
Fax: +44 121 414 4865
E-mail: M.T.McLinden@bham.ac.uk

This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a national survey which, as part of the project, was sent to VISUALLY IMPAIRED Services and Schools in the United Kingdom in Spring 2000. The survey requested information about the use of LVAs by children with MDVI in the school/service and in particular, those who are at early stages of reading. Each school/service was also asked to provide brief case study information on children with multiple disabilities concerning the use or non-use of LVAs. On the basis of the responses to the questionnaire a number of services will be selected for follow-up research as part of phase two of the project. The paper will utilise a selection of case studies and will provide opportunities for focused discussion.


poster
2.19

Facilitating the development of intentional communication in blind multihandicapped infants

full text of lecture 2.19

Monika Orkan-Lecka, Poland

Address:
Association of parents and friends of blind and partially sighted children "Rainbow"
Kopinska str. 6/10, 02-321 Warsaw, Poland
E-mail: rainbow@free.ngo.pl

During my many years of work with blind multi-handicapped infants and their parents I was more convinced that systematic facilitation of communicative development stimulates the development in other areas in a natural way. That is why in my paper I would like to make an attempt to answer a few questions which are - in my opinion - crucial to the process of assisting communicative development.
First of all I would like to discuss the question of which of the early behaviours of the adult partner's communication helps the child - sighted or blind - in the development of intention.
Secondly I would like to discuss the question of which of the early cognitive and social skills are vital to the blind infant travelling to the phase of intentional communication.
Next, I would like to present the problem of obstacles and disturbances by the blind multi-handicapped child learning how to communicate. Moreover, I would like to talk about some methods which, in my experience, proved effective in helping the child to overcome some of these obstacles.
Finally, I would like to share some experiences from my work concerning parent training methods in the field of communication.


lecture
2.20

Development of the education of multi-handicapped students in Bulgaria

full text of lecture 2.20

Peter Petrov, Bulgaria

Address:
Varna School for the Blind
M. Vilite Kv. Asparuhovo, Varna
9003 Bulgaria
Fax: +359 52 774 270

For many years as in some other countries visually impaired multi-handicapped students were educated among all other students with no focus on their specific needs. In 1967, in Sofia School for the visually impaired the first class for visually impaired students with mental retardation was started. The students followed the curriculum of the schools for mentally retarded. In 1989, in Varna school for visually impaired the first deafblind students were accepted.

In 1990 a new period of the education of visually impaired multi-handicapped students started. The factors were: the knowledge and experience gained in this area; the international projects and conferences; the increasing population. In 1999 the education of severely multi-handicapped students started in Varna School for the visually impaired. In both Bulgarian special schools those students are educated individually with no certificate of graduation but a certificate of the skills learned during their education.


lecture and poster
2.21

Accompanying a family with a small blind and multi-handicapped child using the Dutch Video Home Training method

full text of lecture 2.21

Ewa Reczek and Katarzyna Kwiatkowska, Poland

Address:
Foundation PLUS and Christian society of Handicapped Persons, their families and friends "Ognisko"
Os. Dywizjonu 303, bl. 27/40, 31-873 Cracow, Poland
Fax: +48 12 429 65 54
E-mail: spinplus@bci.pl

Video Home Training is an intensive method of home help for families with problematic children. In case of children with development problems, the analysis of the video recording allows to determine the level of child's development and also helps how to notice and follow the child's initiatives. In case of contact with a blind child, parents usually have more problems with reading it's signals than they would have in case of normal child. The VHT method helps parents notice small signals in everyday situations, which is especially important in case of multi-handicapped children. The ability of noticing the child's initiative helps to take control over it and to make a mutual contact. The cooperation with the child can later lead to modification of its plays. This allows the parents to positively control the child and to teach it new abilities.

The VHT procedure goes as follows: the VHT trainer makes the recording of parents and children in a family situation. Then parents watch the recording together with the trainer and analyse it. The trainer points at positive contacts with parents and children. This way he enforces the right behaviour of the parents.


poster
2.22

Integrated mathematics with Woodwork

full text of poster 2.22

Mia Rundgren and Gunnar Stengarn, Sweden

Address:
Ekeskolan
Box 9024, S-700 09 Örebro
Sweden
Fax: + 46 19 67 62 200

Ekeskolan in Örebro is the only special school for the visually impaired in Sweden, and function as a resource centre for visually impaired children and young people with additional disabilities.

We offer education, assessments, training, consultations and information to children and young people, their staff and parents. The basis of our work is the situation and individual need of each child, and our aim is to give each child such experiences as to enable them to live a full life.

We are a group of teachers in the special school that have been interested to develop the mathematics education for the students. The successful work with the project "Integrated Mathematics with Woodwork" has inspired the teachers to expend and include that way to work also to the other practical school subjects.

The main problem for this group of students are to connect theoretical mathematics with practical reality. Students who are visually impaired have generally problems with judgement of distance and space. For the moment we are concentrated to fortify the long measures m, dm, cm and mm to the children. These long measures is something the students carries naturally, in shape of their body. It's about making the abstract mathematics to concrete bodily experience to carry and connect to everyday use.

The students also have a need to increase naturally body movements during their whole day. Bodily movements must not only be connected to special subjects as Physical education and handicraft. If they get a better ability to move they would probably get a better confidence so they got the courage to break their little sphere. The fact that these children use other sins to get knowledge is the school subject Picture and shape very important to include in this process.

All teachers have experience of many years teaching visually impaired children. That experience has showed that there is a need of co-operation over the traditional school subjects for making it easier for these children to understand the theoretical connection in practice.

The question that has been leading the teachers work is: " How can we create a learning situation that not will be subjects parted or parted in theory and practice?"


lecture
2.23

Batten's disease/Spielmeyer-Vogt. The Nordic Touch

full text of lecture 2.23

Solveig Sjöstedt, Finland

Address:
Svenska Skolan för synskadade
Skepparegatan 39 A3, 00150 Helsingfors, Finland
E-mail: solveig.sjostedt@netlife.fi

The paper I like to present would be a presentation of a 5-year Nordic co-operation on educational and social aspects regarding children with Batten's disease. I would present three final reports, one giving information on the backgrounds in the 5 Nordic countries and the educational implications concerning these students as well as the effects of the dieseas on the possibilities of learning.

The second part would be a report from a conference regarding "Quality of Life for Children and Young People with Batten's disease". This part will give various aspects on what we mean with quality of life and how this could be transferred to these children and young people.

The third part would concern the way of "net-working" that has been used in the work carried out by the Nordic countries. An extended summary of the material prepared as well as the web-site that was prepared will be available in English in Cracow.


lecture
2.24

Self-injuring behaviour of persons with a visual and intellectual disability

full text of lecture 2.24 [RAR]

Paula Sterkenburg and Ferda Bijker, the Netherlands

Address:
The Visual Advisory Centre, Bartiméushage
P.O. Box 87, 3940 AB Doorn, The Netherlands
Fax: +31 343 513 996
E-mail: P.Sterkenburg@Bartimeus.nl

The Visual Advisory Centre is a department of Bartiméushage. The latter is a Dutch organisation providing care and services to persons who are both visually and intellectually disabled. Staff of the Visual Advisory Centre assesses the visual functioning of intellectually disabled. Special methods are used for the assessment. The resulting influence of the visual impairment on behaviour is examined. This is done by observing and analysing the client's behaviour, by interviewing the caregivers and by studying medical and psychological files and the reports of the client's individual care plan. Often insight into the visual functioning can explain a lot about behaviour and potential. For many clients, also for many clients with self-injuring behaviour, the visual impairment and the influence of the visual impairment on behaviour are not known.

The main goal is to present the accumulated information on visual and intellectual disabled with self-injuring behaviour. During the presentation the possible links between visual impairment and self-injuring behaviour will be reported. By summarising the client centred advice that was given in detailed reports written by the psychologist, possible measures that can be taken in daily care will be explained. This may contribute to the prevention or reduction of self-injuring behaviour.


poster
2.25

The use and results of a stimulation program for young children who are visually and intellectually disabled


Paula Sterkenburg and Ferda Bijker, the Netherlands

Address:
The Visual Advisory Centre, Bartiméushage
P.O. Box 87, 3940 AB Doorn, The Netherlands
Fax: +31 343 513 996
E-mail: P.Sterkenburg@Bartimeus.nl

The Visual Advisory Centre is a department of Bartiméushage. Bartiméushage is a Dutch organisation providing care and services to persons who are both visually and intellectually disabled. Staff of the Visual Advisory Centre assesses the visual functioning of intellectually disabled. Special methods are used for the assessment.
Because of these visual assessments a visual impairment can be identified early in the life of multiple disabled children. This early identification of a visual impairment can lead to the implementation of a visual and multi-perceptional stimulation program at an early age.
A case study will be presented in which both the theoretical and practical aspects of stimulation programs will be described. On the theoretical side for example we will have a look at the well-known programs of Dr. Nielsen and Prof. Fröhlich. Practical information on the integration of a stimulation program into daily care will be presented. Attention will also be given to the different aspects that should be kept in mind before starting a stimulation program. The results of the early stimulation program that were found in this case study will be discussed.

No further text available.


lecture
2.26

Diagnosis of specific impairments in visual perception in congenitally brain damaged children


Erik Vandenbussche, Belgium

Address:
LAB, Neuropsychology, University Leuven
Campus Gasthuisberg Herestraat 49, B- 3000 Belgium
Fax: +32 16 3459 93
E-mail: erik.vandenbussche@med.kuleuven.ac.be

Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) usually occurs in the context of multiple other handicaps. This makes it difficult to demonstrate specific impairments in cognitive abilities, e.g. visual perception, because reduced task scores can be explained by several of the many deficits that are present. We present results with the L94, a battery of visual perceptual tasks, incorporating a methodological approach to meet this problem. This approach allows the diagnosis of specific visual perceptual impairments at the pre-school level in multiple handicapped children. The battery comprised six object recognition and two visio-constructive tasks. Seven tasks were newly designed. For these normative data were collected in the age range 2.75 - 6.50 years. The recognition tasks included a control procedure for the naming paradigm, and visual perceptual ability was evaluated relative to the non-verbal intelligence level, instead of chronological age.
First, we will show that the battery readily differentiates between a group of 22 mentally handicapped children without indications for CVI, and 57 5-year-old children who were at risk for CVI due to prematurity or birth asphyxia. In a second study, the battery was applied to a group of 96 physically handicapped children, and it was found that about 1/3rd of these showed specific impairments on at least one task.

Full text not available.


poster
2.27

Implementation of a versatile auditory scanning AAC device for a severe physical and visual handicapped teenager


Ingrid Vanderwaeren, Belgium

Address:
Centrum Ganspoel
Ganspoel 2, 3040 Huldenberg, Belgium
Fax: +32 2 688 07 13
E-mail: Sonia.Meys@ganspoel.be

This poster demonstrates the implementation of an augmentative communication device for a multiple visual impaired teenager. This adolescent, Kris, is blind and has a severe physical handicap. Therefore, without technology he was entirely dependent on others, having only verbal communication with close relatives. Due to his good mental capacities and his urge to communication this posed a severe restriction. Until now there didn't exist a dedicated device that was suitable for both his severe impairments and his intellectual capacities. After years of courage shown by Kris and his relatives, we finally found the speech computer Tellus based on the software Mind Express available from T&I Belgium. After some modifications, like integration of the auditory scanning, this system became accessible for visual impaired people. Using two switches and auditory scanning Kris is able to select words and messages in a tree of categories. This permits him to alternative verbal communication, written communication and allows him to control his TV, stereo and phone.
Thanks to Kris' strong motivation, and because of the technological evolution, Kris benefits now from a greater independence, an enrichment of his life, a sensible leisure time and he gets an honest chance to real integration.

No further text available.


lecture
2.28

Children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI), a specific challenge in the care for children with low vision

full text of lecture 2.28

Tine van den Wouwer, Belgium

Address:
Institut Spermalie
Snaggaardstraat 9, 8000 Brugge, Belgium
Fax: +32 50 337 306
E-mail: info@mpi-spermalie.be

At primary school age children with C.V.I. are confronted differently with impairment and handicap. Many parts of coaching programmes are based on an intact interpretation of visual materials. The current methods are based on an intact interpretation of visual materials. The current methods are no longer usable for children with C.V.I. Known adaptations for children with low vision do not satisfy. In spite of present verbal qualities there are often problems to obtain and use cultural skills such as reading and calculating.
The experiences acquired in a setting specialised in coaching children with low vision are tested to see if they are usable for children with C.V.I. Is visual training effective? Can it be helpful to act in an explicit systematic way? Are auditive data processing and resources involved? Applications are illustrated by cases. The approach maintains a careful choice of activities applied for revalidation or stimulation of impairment beside the use of other possibilities present. Awareness of the problems which C.V.I. causes can avoid a lot of incomprehension and starts a creative coaching process.


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