Chapter 6: Social education/social educational development

Contents

  1. "Hand over Hand" Blind teacher working with blind child
    Karin Anderson, Knut Brandsborg, Astrid Vik, Norway
  2. Improvement of social adjustment of visually impaired Children in mainstream education
    Christina Avall-Severinsen, Denmark
  3. Art of communication
    Natalia Belyakova, Russia
  4. Childhood and Adolescent Behaviour Problems in the Blind and Partially Sighted
    Michael Brambring, Germany
  5. Sexual education of children and young people with a visual impairment
    Sytske Brandenburg, the Netherlands
  6. Stereotype behaviours - Meaningful peculiarities?
    Mechtild Gahbler, Germany
  7. The model of corrective and educational work in the development of valuable orientations of blind and partially sighted senior pupils
    Svetlana Gaidukevich, Belarus
  8. Coping with handicap by self-investigation
    Toos van Huijgevoort, the Netherlands
  9. The emotional development of visually impaired children
    Irena Kaffemaniene, Lithuania
  10. The situation among young visually impaired people in the Polesski region in Belarus
    Andrey Levitski, Belarus
  11. The sense of self in blind and visually deficient schoolchildren in normal and special schools and its influence on academic attainment
    María Isabel Martínez Pérez, Spain
  12. The genesis and evolution of a series of European biennial summer camps for young VI people, held in England, Holland, Sweden and Denmark
    Brian McManus and Angela Beach, United Kingdom
  13. Art therapy exercises with partially sighted teenage girls
    Lena Rosengren and Lena Löwenhielm, Sweden
  14. Main ideas of the independent living movement and the personal assistance method
    Birgit Rothenberg, Germany
    To the rating and self-determination and independence in visually impaired people's lives - a study's result
    Birgit Drolshagen and Birgit Rothenberg, Germany
    The meaning of independence and self-determination referring to the education and rehabilitation of persons with blindness and low vision
    Birgit Drolshagen, Germany
  15. Sex education for people with Visual Impairment
    Miek Scheepers, Belgium
  16. The teacher's role in social adaptation of visually impaired children
    Ivelina Sokolova, Bulgaria
  17. International contacts of visually impaired pupils in Minsk
    Tatyana Tsagoyka, Belarus
  18. Self- Concept and social support in visually impaired and sighted adolescents
    Antoniya Zdravkova Andonova, Bulgaria

lecture
6.1

"Hand over Hand" Blind teacher working with blind child

full text of lecture 6.1

Karin Anderson, Knut Brandsborg, Astrid Vik, Norway

Address:
Huseby National Resource Centre for Visually Impaired
Gamle Hovseter vej 3, N-0768 Oslo, Norway
E-mail: vestlandetks@online.no
E-mail: Knut.Brandsborg@ks-huseby.no

This study tries to investigate the strategies used by a blind teacher and a 10 year old blind child from an interactional point of view. They were videotaped for almost 20 hours during 7 sessions of life skills. The tapes were analysed by the blind teacher and two sighted professionals. The results were categorised into five central themes or strategies:

  1. Direct physical contact and using hands together.
  2. Critical information.
  3. The use of conversation and auditive strategies.
  4. The importance of low speed and sufficient time in their interaction.
  5. The value of similarity, equality and identity.
The strategies are interpreted from three different angles: from the blind teacher's "inside perspective", from a sighted teacher's, and from a sighted psychologist's point of view.
The study gave a blind student attending a local school the opportunity to meet an adult blind role model regularly, and to learn strategies from this model.
The results clarify some of the strengths and limitations of a blind teacher working with a blind child. Our vision is to support and expand the professional role of blind teachers.
Sighted professionals may learn to use some of the strategies. This study supports our assumption that they have a lot to learn from blind colleagues. Team work is necessary.


lecture
6.2

Improvement of social adjustment of visually impaired Children in mainstream education

full text of lecture 6.2

Christina Avall-Severinsen, Denmark

Address:
Synsinstituttet
Sofiendalsvej 92A, DK-9200 Aalborg Sv, Denmark
Fax: +45 98 790585
E-mail: chse@synsinst.nja.dk

Visually impaired children in mainstream education have told me about their insecurity, isolation and loneliness.
Consequently it is of great importance that the work with social adjustment and identity is carried out with the same intensity as teaching the traditional school subjects.
That's why I work intensively in the following 3 fields:

Family:

Parents and siblings should be offered all support and help they may need.
The strength and insight thus given to them will always help the visually impaired child.

The attitude of the seeing:

We have to work with the attitude of the surroundings to visually impaired children in order to maintain respect, tolerance and insight for their needs to mark the education and the social gathering.

The visually impaired child:

It is most important to work with the children's insight and understanding of the fact that they themselves can contribute to the social interaction.
The goal is to let the children turn out successfully and offer them a possibility to gain independence, self-esteem and trust in their own abilities as well as expectations of quality of life.

This paper is based on 35 years of experience in the field of integration of visually impaired children.


lecture
6.3

Art of communication

full text of lecture 6.3

Natalia Belyakova, Russia

Address:
Moscow Boarding School for Blind Children
Malaya Filijevskayastr. , fl.22, block 4, house 8 Moscow 121433, Russia
E-mail: ayyy@mail.ru

In general both sides: blind persons and visual world ought to be ready to take each other as they are. Maybe a lot of countries have the same problem but as for us in Russia we have it as the biggest one. As usual invalids are taken by society as an object of help. It brings troubles for developing invalids as independent persons. To teach both of them how to take each other is the main purpose of persons connected to invalids? In 1991 visual children and blind ones from our school began to spend summer time together. First children had just common games playing together. The main idea of these games for children was to be partners in everything they did. In 1993 from the idea of common games the great program was made. The name of this program is 'Art of Communication'. The author is - Irina Belskaya. In summer 1998 one more program very close to this program " Art of living in society" appeared like prelude before the art of communication. The author is- Galina Efimova. These two programs help us in solving the great problem as explained above.


lecture
6.4

Childhood and Adolescent Behaviour Problems in the Blind and Partially Sighted

full text of lecture 6.4

Michael Brambring, Germany

Address:
University of Bielefeld, Dept. of Psychology
P.O.Box 100131, 33501 Germany
Fax: +5 21/1 06 80 62
E-mail: m.brambring@uni-bielefeld.de

This paper represents an overview of the state of research on the type and frequency of behaviour problems in children and adolescents who are blind or partially sighted. Representative studies (Freeman et al., 1991, 1997; Tirosch et al., 1998) are used to present the prevalence of behaviour disturbances in this population. The impact of different characteristics such as the degree of visual impairment and the type of severity of additional impairments on the frequency of behaviour problems is considered.
The problems in comparing behaviour problems in blind and sighted populations are dealt with against the background of the controversial discussion on autistic or autism-like symptoms in children who are blind (Brown at al., 1997; Elonen & Cain, 1964; Fraiberg & Freedman, 1964; Minter et al., 1998). The paper finishes by sketching the most important therapeutic methods (development-orientated, psycho-dynamic, behavioural and medicinal) for reducing behaviour problems in children and adolescents who are visually impaired.


lecture
6.5

Sexual education of children and young people with a visual impairment

full text of lecture 6.5

Sytske Brandenburg, the Netherlands

Address:
De Blauwe Kamer Theofaan Groep
St. Elisabethstr.4, 5361 HK Grave, the Netherlands
Fax: +31 486 47 24 41
E-mail: SytskeB@theofaan.nl

The sexual education of children and young people with a visual impairment needs extra attention. A condition for a healthy sexual development is a good social-emotional development . A positive self image and sufficient social skills are important building stones and because children and young people with a visual impairment are vulnerable in these areas of development, they are more at risk in their sexual development. Maybe a more important risk factor is their limitation to the visual informal information about nudity and contraceptives.
Not just the children and young people are limited, also the adults are limited in educating the children and youngsters. Educating in this field needs more openness of oneself and more awareness of own boundaries.


lecture
6.6

Stereotype behaviours - Meaningful peculiarities?

full text of lecture 6.6

Mechtild Gahbler, Germany

Address:
Bildungszentrum für blinde und sehbehinderte
Briegerstr. 21, 90471 Nürnberg, Germany
Fax: +49 911 8967203
E-mail: m.gahbler@odn.de

Stereotypic movements carried out by the blind, also known as „blindisms," are patterns of somewhat peculiar movements used by many blind human beings, as well as other groups of persons. It is striking that these different patterns of movements are relatively consistent throughout different cultures and socio-cultural classes.

My goal in dealing with this topic is to develop a frame of reference which demonstrates the sense, meaning, and purpose of these movements and relates them to other behaviours specific to blindness.

I hope to provide another context for blindisms - in opposition to the widely held opinion that they are „bad behaviour" which needs to be stopped or adjusted. It is important to ask how we can deal with such behaviour patterns differently - realising, of course, that they can certainly be socially problematic. It is my opinion that we must try to understand the deeper meaning of - and be more respectful of - stereotypic behaviours.


lecture
6.7

The model of corrective and educational work in the development of valuable orientations of blind and partially sighted senior pupils

full text of lecture 6.7

Svetlana Gaidukevich, Belarus

Address:
State Pedagogikal University
St. Fizkulturnaya, 33-58, 220028 Minsk, Belarus
Tel: +375 17 219 373
E-mail: ortiko@open.by

The study of new formations in the structure of a person which ensure the process of its self-determination, as well as the search for possibilities of pedagogical support of their development, is one of the modern approaches to the solution of a problem how to prepare schoolchildren for independent life. As some scientists, for example K. Albukhanova-Slavskaya, L. Bozhovich, B. Kruglov, etc. see it, such a new formation is the valuable orientation's system.

The development of valuable orientations (VO) of blind and partially sighted senior pupils must be realised under conditions of organized educational work having a marked corrective orientation. Such a case is confirmed by the results of our research, according to which by serious visual impairment against a background of general regularities of the VO formation and development of a number of peculiarities caused by mediated influence of visual defect draws attention.

The corrective trend of pedagogical support by the development of valuable orientations is ensured by blind and partially sighted senior pupils' taking an active part in the activities in mastering valuable reality and forming their abilities(cognitive, estimating and predictive) which fulfil a compensatory function in the process of cognising socially significant values, their appropriation and transformation into valuable orientations.

The effective realisation of a corrective part in the work to develop valuable orientations of blind and partially sighted senior pupils contributes to creation of its pedagogical model. The model offered by us reflects stages of the interaction "teacher - pupils" by the teaching and educational process, its aim and the content. With the help of the model one can clearly define the sequence of interactions between a teacher and pupils, conform them to the logic of the VO formation, organise the work in developing compensatory abilities. The offered model of corrective and educational work can be realised both, at the lessons or during special corrective studies, and in the process of out-of-school organised activities of senior pupils.


lecture
6.8

Coping with handicap by self-investigation

full text of lecture 6.8

Toos van Huijgevoort, the Netherlands

Address:
De Blauwe Kamer Groep
St. Elisabethstr. 4, 5360 AB Grave, The Netherlands
Fax: +31 486 472 441
E-mail: ToosH@theofaan.nl

In my presentation I will present the results of the study I am working on.
The aim of this study is:

  1. To establish how being blind or visually impaired is expressed in the content and arrangement of the self-narratives (the stories that people use to construct meaning out of the events in their lives, when a client tells a personal story, he or she gives significance to experiences and events).
  2. To establish how the technique of self-investigation stimulates the process of coping with the handicap.

In this study the self-confrontation method (H.J.M. Hermans, E. Hermans-Jansen, 1995), as a form of self-investigation, is used not only to analyze the content and the organization of the self-narrative of visually impaired clients, but also to stimulate the process of coping.
The self-confrontation method is based on the valuation theory, which is part of the narrative psychology. The method provides detailed procedures for helping clients to identify the values, meanings and life stories that have shaped and continue to shape their patterns of experiencing. The method has the following characteristics: a gradual and theory-guided transition between assessment and change; a broadening of the valuation scope so that people can express a great diversity of meaning units that play or might play a significant role in their daily lives; and a cooperative relationship in which clients or subjects are invited to act as investigators of their own self-narratives and challenged to take initiatives to change their situation.
In the presentation an explanation will be given of the theory of self-confrontation method and the way it is used in the rehabilitation process of visually impaired people and what the effects are on the process of coping with the impairment


poster
6.9

The emotional development of visually impaired children

full text of lecture 6.9

Irena Kaffemaniene, Lithuania

Address:
Siauliai University
Visinskio 25, 5400 Siauliai, Lithuania
Fax: +370 1 42 7283
E-mail: all@sp.su.lt

The visually impaired children experience various difficulties, connected both with their restricted abilities to see and with communication, behaviour problems etc. Those problems deepen the sensitivity and nervousness of such children.

During the investigation using adapted assessment methods we questioned parents of 6-year-old visually impaired children about the symptoms of their children's psychic tension and behaviour disturbances noticed by them. Diagnoses of sight, median and severe disturbances of behaviour, neurotics and psychic tension of those visually impaired children were based on the multitude of the symptoms.

37,5% Of those children were characterised by severe neurotic ailments and disadaptive behaviour which maybe were formed by the entire complex of biological and social factors. Quite often one has to look for causes of neurotic and behaviour disturbances in the family life. Almost in all cases (except some inborn diseases) children's nervousness is the result of improper upbringing and of the wrong attitude of parents towards their children.

Parents would be provided with special knowledge of education and psychology which would help them to avoid mistakes in upbringing of their visually impaired children. The article provides same methods of correction of disturbances in emotional development and behaviour of those children.


poster
6.10

The situation among young visually impaired people in the Polesski region in Belarus

full text of lecture 6.10

Andrey Levitski, Belarus

Address:
Pinsk Cultural Rehabilitation Centre
Zheleznodorozhnayastr., home 80, room 26, Pinsk 225710, Belarus
E-mail: BOX@BTIZPNS.BELPAK.BREST.BY

Young visually impaired people of the Polesski region in Belarus have some problems. The Polesski region of Belarus, the Lake Pripyat has its own ethnic, language and cultural peculiarities. It is one of the reasons why the youths with poor eye-sight of this region, especially in Pinsk, have their own problems: integration into society, rehabilitation, employment and the access to getting a higher education. The Chernobyl disaster caused more difficulties.
We represent a Cultural Rehabilitation Centre for the visually impaired in Pinsk. The Centre was founded in 1997. At the Centre we try to solve many problems among which:


The Centre has no international contacts with the youth from foreign countries which is why we are interested in participating in the ICEVI conference in Cracow.


lecture
6.11

The sense of self in blind and visually deficient schoolchildren in normal and special schools and its influence on academic attainment

full text of lecture 6.11

María Isabel Martínez Pérez, Spain

Address:
O.N.C.E.
Calle Prado 24, Madrid 28014, Spain
Fax: +34 91 429 31 18

This paper aims to present a line of research aimed at understanding the influence that the sense of self variable can have on blind or visually impaired children and its incidence in academic attainment.

The starting point of the paper is an analysis of the realities visually impaired children with special educational needs face in the current Spanish educational system (L.OG.S.E.). It is based on the theoretical models developed in studies written by Shavetson, Hubner and Stanton. The paper tries to address the following questions:

  1. Is the sense of self in visually impaired students the same or worse than in students who have no special educational needs?
  2. Do visually impaired schoolchildren attending special centres have the same or worse sense of self than visually impaired schoolchildren attending normal schools?
  3. What incidence does all of the above have on the educational field?

The two main aims of education are to make students fully autonomous and integrate them socially. The importance of the sense of self in achieving these aims is well-known. Thus, once the results of the research are analysed, the authors put forward a program designed to improve the sense of self of this kind of schoolchildren within an educational setting.


poster
6.12

The genesis and evolution of a series of European biennial summer camps for young VI people, held in England, Holland, Sweden and Denmark

full text of lecture 6.12

Brian McManus and Angela Beach, United Kingdom

Address:
St. Vincent's School for the Blind
Yew Tree Lane, West Derby, Liverpool L12 9HN, UK
Fax: +44 151 252 0216
E-mail: brian.mcmanus@lineone.net

Over several years, members of the ICEVI had enjoyed the opportunity to share their knowledge and experiences with colleagues working in the same field, but from different countries/perspectives.
In Wurzburg, in 1987, it was suggested that their students might also benefit from interaction with other visually impaired young people in neighbouring countries.

Thus began the series of international summer camps, which now occur every two years, hosted by each of the member groups in turn: - England, Sweden, Denmark and Holland.
No two occasions have been the same, but ideas and examples of good practice have been carried forward and incorporated in the subsequent events.

"Euro-Vision '99 - Looking to the Millennium', held in England, was the first time that eastern European students had joined us. This was mainly due to the co- operation between Sue Walker of Dorton House School and Sue Clamp of St. Vincent's, Liverpool.
Four VI students and two members of staff from Romania, sponsored by the founder - countries, journeyed to England for ten days of fun, new experiences and challenges.
Tomteboda, Stockholm, Sweden has offered to host the next event as our venture enters a new Millennium.


poster
6.13

Art therapy exercises with partially sighted teenage girls

full text of lecture 3.13

Lena Rosengren and Lena Löwenhielm, Sweden

Address:
TRC Tomtebodanskolans resource centre
Box 1313, 17125 Solna, Sweden
Fax: +46 8 4700 707
E-mail: lena.rosengren@.se

We want to present a poster showing our experiences of our work with a group of teenage girls with low vision.
To be the only visually impaired pupil in the school might involve serious social problems.
In order to help, in some extent, we gathered a group of girls (7) to a course at TRC. The purpose of work in the group was to strengthen the girls` identities by communication using words together with two and three- dim pictures.
We met ten times during the school year, for about six hours each time. over a year and we could notice a clear development of the girls` self-confidence and in their ability to produce and interpret both their own and each other's pictures.


lecture
6.14a

Main ideas of the independent living movement and the personal assistance method

full text of lecture 6.14

Birgit Rothenberg, Germany

Address:
University of Dortmund FB 13 Special Needs
Emil Figgestr. 50, 44221 Dortmund, Germany
Fax: +49 231 755 2848
E-mail: rothenberg@nvl1.fb13.uni-dortmund.de

In this paper the main ideas and a short historic abstract of the independent-living paradigm are presented. The principle of independent living as a handicapped person's prospect of life was developed by handicapped persons against outside determination, separation and discrimination. Handicapped human beings demand rights, equalisation and control of their lives, of their organisations and of the institutions which offer them services. Based on this background they developed the model of personal assistance. Pedagogical orientated help should take the principle of independent living and assistance into consideration. Thus independent living is a challenge for special educationalists as well.


lecture
6.14b

To the rating and self-determination and independence in visually impaired people's lives - a study's result

full text of lecture 6.14

Birgit Drolshagen and Birgit Rothenberg, Germany

Address:
University of Dortmund FB 13 Special Needs
Emil Figgestr. 50, 44221 Dortmund, Germany
Fax: +49 231 755 2848
E-mail: rothenberg@nvl1.fb13.uni-dortmund.de

Founded on the theoretical ideas the papers preceded the example of interviews to visually impaired people´s living conditions and living perspectives are represented.

The closing outlook discusses the results´ foundation, to what extent the qualification to an independent lifestyle in future should be a task of school education or adult education respectively. The question is to what extent the aim of the qualification to an independent lifestyle requires a content and linguistic modification.


lecture
6.14c

The meaning of independence and self-determination referring to the education and rehabilitation of persons with blindness and low vision

full text of lecture 6.14

Birgit Drolshagen, Germany

Address:
University of Dortmund FB 13 Special Needs
Emil Figgestr. 50, 44221 Dortmund, Germany
Fax: +49 231 755 2848
E-mail: rothenberg@nvl1.fb13.uni-dortmund.de

This paper is founded on the independent-living principle as a possible counter term to independence as described in the recent paper. This paper presents which meaning this principle has within the specialised discussion connected with education and rehabilitation of persons with blindness and low vision. Topic of discussion is the consideration of the position of independence and self-determination as aims of blind and visually impaired persons` education and rehabilitation. The training of orientation and mobility as an example presents that nowadays independence is no longer the only aim of education. In addition to this positive development in future, required developmental steps referring to a new relationship between independence and self-determination are pointed out. Those developmental steps are written in form of thesis and build the basis for the following discussion.


lecture
6.15

Sex education for people with Visual Impairment

full text of lecture 6.15

Miek Scheepers, Belgium

Address:
Centrum Ganspoel vzw
Ganspoel 2, 3040 Huldenberg, Belgium
Fax: +32 2 688 0713
E-mail: Sonia.Meys@ganspoel.be

Since 1995, CENTRUM GANSPOEL is focusing on sex education and social education of people with visual impairment.

"Education" implies, in our opinion, a continuous and permanent developing process. The need for this kind of education originated from a general lack of a common, like-minded interpretation, clarity, continuity and know-how regarding the subject of sexuality. This educational programme is addressed to the four main actors within an organisation: consequently the management's policy, the parents' involvement, schooling of professionals, the targeted population (youth and teens), all determine, in their turn this programme. In this paper, I would like tot elaborate on these four items, with special attention to the handicapped person itself.

Three issues are of a major importance in this respect:

  1. sexual education
  2. social skills
  3. defensibility.

I will clarify the contents of the programme and the adaptation and application of methodology and learning material.

We are convinced that our programme might contribute substantially to the development of a specific approach towards people with visual impairment.


lecture
6.16

The teacher's role in social adaptation of visually impaired children

full text of lecture 6.16

Ivelina Sokolova, Bulgaria

Address:
School for Blind Children
Lomsko Shose str. 177, Sofia 1229, Bulgaria
Fax: +359 2 381264
E-mail: Draganova.M@bnbank.org

The Visually Impaired Children' integration is the main aim of the educational system in every democratic country around the world. This integration can be only successful with realizing of the visually impaired children' early social adaptation. This process includes a lot of stages in which he/she must know well the special features of the social-economical sphere of his/her own country. The final result of the social adaptation depends on the teacher's professional abilities.

In this report I share my personal experience in solving the problems of social adaptation.
"The problems of visually impaired children's social adaptation in Bulgaria" is the title of the first part of my report. It contains the following topics:

The title of the second part of the report is "Outlook".
The topics in it are:

"Teacher's role" is the third part of my report. It contains the following topics:


poster
6.17

International contacts of visually impaired pupils in Minsk

full text of lecture 6.17

Tatyana Tsagoyka, Belarus

Address:
Minsk Special Secondary School N188
Dunina Martinkevich str., house 6, app. 133, Minsk, 220092 Belarus
E-mail: losik@newman.bas-net.by

These are basic, necessary skills visually impaired pupils need for their further rehabilitation, their employment and going to the institutes of higher education. The pupils of the School for Blind Children where I work as a teacher got acquainted with foreign countries when they visited for the first time. Journeys to Italy are organised every year in the summer. Some pupils were invited to Germany in the summer. In 1998 a school girl of the tenth form went to the United States for studying according to the International Programme for pupils. After returning to Belarus she started corresponding with her friends who remained in the US. In 1999 two school girls of the tenth form corresponded by e-mail with pupils from Perkins Special School in the US. Journeys to Italy, Germany, United States, correspondence by e-mail and Braille stimulate learning foreign languages, working with a computer and using e-mail.


lecture
6.18

Self- Concept and social support in visually impaired and sighted adolescents; the need of group procedures to improve the social skills of the visually impaired adolescents in non-integrated school settings: a Bulgarian study

full text of lecture 6.18

Antoniya Zdravkova Andonova, Bulgaria

Address:
Gurko 101-A. Apt. 31, Stara Zagora 6000, Bulgaria
E-mail: antonypsyc@yahoo.com

This paper presents interesting results from a nation-wide study of the University of Sofia, concerning the self-concept and social support of blind and visually impaired adolescents. We made comparison between the self-concept and social support of visually impaired and sighted adolescents, analysed the differences and suggested a program of training sessions that will overcome the effects of learning and living in special school settings.
Vision-related and socio-demographic variables are included in this study in order to determine for example the influence of gender and age on social support subscales.

About 70 visually impaired and 230 sighted adolescents were included in this study. Questions that are answered: what are the differences between the self-concepts of visually impaired and sighted adolescents? Do visually impaired adolescents receive more social support than the sighted children their age? How the type of education (in special school or integrated one) can influence the adolescent's self-concept and sources of social support? Is there a way to soften up the negative effects from segregated education for the visually impaired adolescents in order for them to develop a realistic self-perception? What are the consequences of the results of this study for the rehabilitation and education?


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